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C++ background: Static, reinterpret and C-Style casts

Ever wondered why C-Style casts and reinterpret_cast casts are considered evil? Let's take an in-depth look at what goes wrong with them.


C++ knows 5 different casts (yeah, C-Style casting is not reinterpret_cast):

  • static_cast: Least harmful, can downcast pointers
  • const_cast: Removes the const modifier. If used incorrectly, this can be a killer as the target might be really const and you get some invalid access errors.
  • dynamic_cast: Safe down/cross-casting between classes, requires RTTI - and RTTI in C++ is something that is often not enabled at all.
  • reinterpret_cast: Casts anything which has the same size, for example, int to FancyClass* on x86. Now this is not really a cast any more but just a way to tell the compiler to throw away type information and treat the data differently.
  • C-Style casting, using the (type)variable syntax. The worst ever invented. This tries to do the following casts, in this order: (see also C++ Standard, 5.4 expr.cast paragraph 5)

    1. const_cast
    2. static_cast
    3. static_cast followed by const_cast
    4. reinterpret_cast
    5. reinterpret_castfollowed by const_cast

    And you thought it is just a single evil cast, in fact its a hydra!

The rule of the thumb should be: Never use reinterpret_cast or C-Style casting, if you need to cast pointers, cast them via void*, and only if absolutely necessary use reinterpret_cast - that means, if you really have to reinterpret the data. Remember, C++ is an expert language, it gives you all the control over your machine you wish, but with power comes responsibility!


Let's take a look why the "hard" casts are really evil and should be avoided like the plague. In this example, we'll assume the following class hierarchy:

class ParentWithoutVtable
    char empty;

class ParentWithVTable
        virtual ~ParentWithVTable () { }

class Derived : public ParentWithoutVtable, public ParentWithVTable

Now, consider this code:

int main () {
    ParentWithoutVtable* p = new Derived ();
    Derived* a = reinterpret_cast<Derived*>(p); // (1)
    Derived* b = static_cast<Derived*>(p); // (2)
    Derived* c = (Derived*)(p); // (3)

What happens? Well, 1 will fail miserably, 2 will work and 3 - depends on whether you included the header properly or just forward defined the types! Lets take a look at (1) first: It fails because the ParentWitoutVTable* pointer does not point at the beginning of the newly created Derived object in memory, but somewhere else. For example, Visual C++ puts the virtual table pointer as the first element of a class, so the real layout of Derived is something like:

struct __Derived
    function_ptr vtable; char empty;

So if we obtain a pointer to an object without a vtable, it will point at empty, otherwise access via the pointer would fail. Now, the reinterpret_cast has no idea of this, and if you call a Derived function, it will think the empty is the vtable. The static_cast does it right, but for this it has to know the full declaration of both types. This is exactly where the C-Style is dangerous: As long as the full declaration is available, everything will work fine without any warning, but if you choose to forward-declare the types, the C-Style will still not emit a warning (while the static_cast will fail!) and perform a reinterpret_cast which will break your code. So be aware, and avoid C-Style casting at all costs.

[Update] Changing the order in which Derived inherits from its parents does not solve this problem. The C++ standard makes no guarantees how the members will be layed out:

the order of derivation is not significant except as specified by the semantics of initialization by constructor (12.6.2), cleanup (12.4), and storage layout (9.2, 11.1).

and the referenced paragraph says:

Implementation alignment requirements might cause two adjacent members not to be allocated immediately after each other; so might requirements for space for managing virtual functions (10.3) and virtual base classes (10.1).

Basically, the compiler is free to put the virtual function table where he wants -- Visual C++ for example always stores the virtual function table first, no matter in what order the class derives from its parents.